The Global Landscape of IP Law: Navigating International IP Protection

Intellectual Property (IP) protection has become more crucial than ever in our increasingly interconnected and digital world. Businesses, creators, and innovators face the unique challenge of safeguarding their assets not only within national boundaries but also internationally. Understanding international IP law is crucial for successfully protecting one's IP abroad. Gathered by the insights from experts at Darwin Gray, here we explore some key aspects and offer insight into strategies to safeguard IP globally.

The Importance of International IP Protection Strategies

Intellectual Property encompasses an expansive spectrum of creations and innovations, such as patents, trademarks, copyrights and trade secrets. As companies expand beyond their home countries, adequate international IP protection becomes ever more crucial for various reasons:

1. Global Market Expansion 

Businesses entering new international markets must protect their intellectual property from unauthorised usage or infringement by competitors located overseas, or risk losing market share and revenue. Without adequate protection measures in place, such businesses could risk market share decline as well as revenue decline.

2. Supply Chain Vulnerabilities

Global supply chains involve collaboration among multiple partners, manufacturers and suppliers worldwide. Therefore, protecting intellectual property throughout the supply chain is crucial to prevent theft or counterfeiting of IP.

3. Technological Advancements

Innovation is at the core of business success today, and international IP protection ensures your inventions and innovations remain protected to help maintain a competitive advantage and ensure your success.

4. Legal and Regulatory Compliance

Different countries have unique IP laws and regulations. Failing to abide by local requirements could result in costly legal battles and lasting reputational damage, so understanding and adhering to them are integral parts of globalising your business.

International IP Protection Strategies

To safeguard the IP assets that belong to you on an international scale, consider these strategies for effective protection:

1. Conduct Comprehensive IP Audits

Start by conducting an IP audit to identify and catalogue all of your assets - this includes patents, trademarks, copyrights and trade secrets. Knowing what you possess is essential in protecting it effectively.

2. Prioritise Key Markets

Once you've determined which international markets are key for your business, prioritise IP protection efforts in these key markets as part of your initial efforts and resources to ensure the protection of intellectual property rights in these priority markets.

3. Apply for International Protection

Consider international IP treaties and agreements which provide protection across multiple countries, such as the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) for patents and the Madrid Protocol for trademarks.

4. Engage Local Counsel

To maximise the protection of your IP assets in each jurisdiction where they need protection, engage IP attorneys or law firms who specialize in the local laws of that place. They can offer tailored advice tailored to their particular legal systems.

5. Monitor and Enforce

Once granted, IP rights require ongoing surveillance and enforcement measures to avoid potential infringement. Establish monitoring systems and strategies in order to identify possible violations and take necessary actions against any that arise.

6. Customise IP Strategies

Tailor your IP protection strategies to the needs of each jurisdiction. Varying approaches may be required depending on where your assets reside. To effectively secure them.

7. Educate Your Team

Make sure that every member of your team, from employees to partners, understands the significance of IP protection and follows best practices to prevent accidental infringement or disclosure.

Technology's Role in International IP Protection

Technology advancements have both simplified and complicated protecting IP on an international scale. While digital tools may speed up the process of protecting rights and monitoring for violations, they have also led to new forms of theft or piracy arising from the theft or piracy of digital IP assets and data. Businesses should invest in cybersecurity measures as a safeguard for digital IP assets and data.

Emerging technologies such as blockchain provide innovative ways to track and protect IP assets globally. Blockchain's decentralised and tamperproof ledger provides secure proof of ownership or origin for digital creations or innovations created using it.

In Conclusion

Navigating international IP protection can be an increasingly complex yet essential endeavour for businesses and creators in today's globalised world. Effective IP protection ensures your innovations, brands, and creations remain protected from unauthorised use or theft - protecting their value and integrity along the way. By understanding the global IP landscape, prioritising key markets, and developing tailored strategies tailored specifically to protecting IP assets at scale while still pursuing growth and innovation on an international scale. With technology constantly developing new tools will remain essential to maintaining a competitive advantage on an international stage.

Bevan Dufty

"Paul brings 15 years of accomplishments and experience," said Dufty. "He is committed to innovation and helping individuals successfully leave the justice system. He will make an outstand sheriff.""I'm thrilled to receive the support of Bevan. This gives my campaign a lightning bolt burst of energy and momentum. Bevan Dufty served as San Francisco Supervisor from 2002 to 2011. He represented District 8, comprised of the neighborhoods of the Castro, Eureka Valley, Upper Market, Noe Valley, Duboce Triangle, Diamond Heights, Glen Park, Corona Heights, Buena Vista, Twin Peaks, Mission-Dolores, and parts of the Inner Mission.Captain Paul Michael Miyamoto is a San Francisco native, with a Chinese-American mother and Japanese-American father. He has served in the San Francisco Sheriff's Department (SFSD) for 15 years. Throughout his career, Paul has shown a great capacity for leadership. In addition to being a supervisor in the jails, he has served as manager of the training unit, the investigations unit, and the institutional patrol unit at San Francisco General Hospital. As a Captain, Paul has been responsible for managing both the department's maximum security jail, and since 2009, managing the largest jail that offers programs and education for those incarcerated. Since 2005, he has served as the Commander of the Department's Special Response Team, which handles emergencies requiring special weapons and tactics training.

He has also served as Operations Lieutenant both at the oldest County Jail, and the opening of the newest Jail at San Bruno. In addition, he was a team leader in the URBAN SHIELD SWAT team competition from 2007-2009, and participated in the Best in the West SWAT Competition for five years.Paul has consistently shown his commitment to improving the effectiveness of the SFSD. He has been certified by the Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training as an instructor for fellow deputies and staff. In addition to his field duties, he has managed the SFSD's Training Unit and spearheaded the creation of the Department's Field Training Manual / Field Training Officer Program, which helps streamline and improve the training of new deputies. Paul is also an instructor in Advanced Officer Training in radio communications, racial profiling, tactical/interpersonal communications, and tactical planning, as well as Specialized Training in crowd control and management, WMD first responder operations, incident command, and tactical operations.

Paul has regularly engaged with the San Francisco community outside his duties with the SFSD. Since 1999, he has participated every year in the SFPD's Lion Dance Team at the annual Chinese New Year Parade. In addition, he has volunteered with Self Help for the Elderly, a non-profit committed to helping low income and isolated seniors by providing social services and hot meals. Paul also volunteers his time coaching basketball both for daughter Melanie's school team and son Jordan's league team.Born in 1967, Paul attended Lowell High in San Francisco before earning his Bachelor's Degree in History from UC Davis. At the SFPD Police Academy, he was elected President of the 17th Regional Class. Paul met his wife, LeeAnn, in 1996 when both were SFSD Deputies. LeeAnn transferred to SFPD and served the City as a Police Officer for 10 years. They have five children together: Melanie (9), Jordan (7), and triplets Joseph, Marissa, and Maya (3).

Dr. York is Innocent

For some the date varies,for me I trace it back to the summer of 1973. Thats when I consciously became aware of the existence/power of Malachi Kobina York(e), known then as As sayyid Al Imaam Issa Al Haadi Al Mahdi. It was in the Bushwick section of Brooklyn New York,as a youth playing in those streets, going to school etc, I was a witness to the crimes, graffitti, drug use, gang activities, lack of services etc. that afflicted the neighborhood. Well as a matter of fact, NONE of those problems existed a few blocks away in a community established by .New York Daily News journalist Jimmy Breslin reported on the same phenomenom.

A substantial part of this is the many books written by Dr.Malachi Kobina York. Fast forward to may 8th 2002, the "arrest" of in Milledgeville, Ga., the so called legal issues surrounding his case, the accusations, etc. have to be scrutinized very close to see the big picture. Fact is he's an innocent man, prosecuted by disagreeable, dissatisfied people with a vested interest in maintaining the status quo.Walk through the years in the history of America,you will find that a tremendous amount of wrong doings have occurred, backed by elected officials,law enforcement, and even regular citizens. Somewhere in your Bible, thorough research tells you about the battle of good vs evil, GOD vs the Devil, manifested to this day. Even the layman will agree.In a nutshell, the works of Dr. Malachi York speak volumes on his character as well as his mission to do great things and heal an ailing humanity, spiritually, socially, and so much more.

What The Charlatans of Charite Are Ready For to Receive Stable Earning?

The legends about "quality" of the medical institution "Charite" have long been rife in Europe. The international Mass Media reports are indicative of it. Thus, in January this year the Berlin police and prosecutor's offices were carrying out the searches in outpatients centers of the clinic as well as in the apartments of some employees of "Charite" suspected of fraud. The spokesman of Berlin prosecutor's office Martin Steltner stated that the law-enforcement officers conducted search warrants in all five outpatients centers and private houses of the employees of the clinic. Altogether the prosecutor initiated 32 search warrants. No less than ten employees of the medical institution were suspected of calculated fraud. According to Steltner, during several years the centers were rendering accounts to the patients from medical persons who didn't have any right to do it. For example, to treat a patient and receive money for that from the cash register is exclusive right of those medical personnel who have the license for medical practice; however, in "Charite" assistant doctors working in in-patient departments or even administrators often stood in for them. And this is not a single instance but more goal-directed illegal practice. Apparently it explains the fact of German prosecutor's office taking more and more close interest in work of "Charite" over last couple of months. This was the case in October 2012 when at the clinic's premises eight babies contracted bacteria infection, and in November - as the result of the rape of 16-old patient by male nurse. And once again there's unpleasant news - on 19th of February this year, according to influential "Berliner Zeitung" in the "Charite" department for newly-born, three babies contracted bacterial infection, more likely - the Serratia bacteria. It is difficult to understand the logic of some European politicians who still listen to the statements and conclusions of "specialists" of the clinic with such reputation. In effect, the personnel of "Charite" is little known beyond this medical institutions. Besides, the quacks of "Charite" allow themselves to openly neglect the opinion of the domestic doctors with world names in neuralgia sphere. Though, why wonder here?: there's one logic here, perhaps - there's much to gain if to hear what one wants to hear or what was ordered. And everything which doesn't fall under the criteria or, God forbid, run counter to such criteria, shouldn't be taken into account but should be considered as "underhand intrigues of the foes". Probably for that particular reason the statement of ordinary physiotherapist of "Charite" Annet Reishauer about the state of Yu.Tymohenko being close to paralysis was gladly welcomed by "International community" (and why not say frankly: by Ms Merkel and her partners from "old Europe"). As the saying goes, he who pays receives the diagnosis according to the pricelist. The more the merrier. The main medical story-teller of our time, director of the board of "Charite"clinic Karl Max Aynhoyphl recently once again stated that heroine of the thriller "Save Yulia" must not be disturbed by no means and the treatment should be carried out only in in-patient department. Preferably in presence of dear lawyer and MPs-female friends who, apparently, have a healing influence on the organism of Tymoshenko. And in this case it never matters that the luminaries of Ukrainian science have come to the following conclusion: 10-months patient treatment which envisaged her taking a number of physiotherapy and rehabilitation treatments has been completed. Moreover, the Ukrainian doctors underlined that further taking of any treatments may have adverse effect. In other words, our doctors have mildly notified that they are not willing to take part in the farce of "salvation of Tymoshenko" where the only thing which is important is process and its cost. Well, can it be any different? Who dares to challenge the threat to life and health of "orange" (or maybe "gas") princess who is so dear to the heart of Western burgher? The members of the Ukrainian commission? But who on earth they are! And this poor opinion of their?! However, if one studies thoroughly the track record of the Ukrainian doctors who are the members of the Commission of Ministry of Health Protection - everything becomes loud and clear. Thus, Evgeniy Pedachenko - member of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Doctor of Medicine, Honored Science and Technology worker, one of the world leading neurosurgery practitioner; he's frequently invited to the leading foreign clinics including in order to conduct surgical interventions. Academician Pedachenko gives lectures on neurosurgery in Austria, Spain, Germany, USA, Switzerland and other countries, he is permanent member of Neurotraumatological Committee of World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies, Royal Society of Surgeons and so on. One can endlessly continue to enumerate regalia of this expert, who is, by the way, in the top five of the best world's practitioners in neurosurgery according to the version of the American Small-Invasive Spinal Surgeons Association. Other members of the Commission of Ministry of Health Protection are his peers Vasiliy Netyazhenko, universally recognized specialist on rehabilitation medicine as well as world-known Ukrainian doctor, corresponding member of National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Doctor of Medicine, member of International Internal Medicine Society Executive Committee; Nikolai Korzh - Doctor of Medicine, member of International Orthopedist and Traumatologist Association , vise-president of the Ukrainian Orthopedist and Traumatologist Association and Ukrainian Osteoporosis Association.

The opinion about the composition of the Commission of the Ministry of Health Protection as well as its professionalism can be formed even by judging the fact that every doctor being member of this Commission have impeccable record of medical experience. As compared with them, German quacks are mountebanks, pure and simple, and it is scary even to let them treat cows; however, their unquestionable advantage is unscrupulous behavior and readiness to set any diagnosis in exchange for your money, "having in mind" opinion of any competent doctors. It turns out that the conclusion of the Commission of the Ministry of Health Protection about inexpediency of further treatment of Yulia Tymoshenko is of no value because it is not the way the European politicians would like it to be. "Double standards" when dealing with different issues of international politics has long become "calling card" of EU officials. Therefore, like-minded persons and team-mates of Tymoshenko shouldn't harbor unnecessary illusions if eurobureaucrats happen to find no advantage in supporting her, then in the nearest future no one from them will even remember Yulia. Political expedience, alas, is cynical. Today Europe needs "ill" Yulia-martyr, but who knows what will happen tomorrow… Geopolitical policies are inconstant, and serving the needs of politicians is always lucrative business. Believe, in "Charite" they have first-hand knowledge and quite hurry to work in this direction. Being elusively commercial project, "Charite" clinic never denied its desire to make money, however, when it comes to ordinary quackery and trickery, so called "specialists" of "Charite" tries to defend themselves, however it is difficult to hide an awl in a sack.

Mass Media not but once informed about the commercial implications of the farce from "Charite" by publishing materials, including video and audio information where entourage of VIP prisoner from "Batkivschyna" gives the doctor of the German clinic, attending medical doctor of Tymoshenko - Lutz Harmse, a red-carpet treatment - they take him for a ride on private motor boats and bowling, they lead him to the VIP-loge to the Europe Championship-2012 Finals. One should mention that the price of one place cost at the time as much as 1 thousand euro for one match. The German doctor was accompanied by a famous Ukrainian photo model and glamorous Katerynchuk (the cost of one-day entertainment of German physician - around 60-70 thousand UAH, meaning - 8-9 thousands USD). In the accessible for public correspondence between daughter of ex-Prime-Minister Evgenia and Grigoriy Nemyrya it is mentioned that the "Charite" medical bill is 680 thousands of euro per month. Simple arithmetic calculations suggest that from May 2012 Yu.Tymoshenko "was treated" for 6 millions 800 thousands euro. Of course, foreign quacks rushed to the courts with statements that they didn't take money and the treatment of the convict leader of the Ukrainian opposition is solely free of charge and that the family only covers the expenditures on transportation and accommodation of the "Charite" specialists. Blessed are the faithful… One may talk about cost of transfers: let's count - charter flights to Europe, 5 in total, cost minimum, 35 thousands euro each, and internal flights, 3 minimum, - 10 thousand euro each, therefore, the flight costs total more than 200 thousands euros. In total, except huge expenditures of "Batkivschyna" and Tymoshenko family we also see fabulous earnings of "Charite" even by international standards. This money may be enough to heal half of Europe. The Germans have also forgotten Hippocratic Oath and professional ethics. Saying, you pay us and we will even treat you for deafness, blindness and middle ear hernia. But most important we will concoct nice documents as bonus. These are the assistants and valiant German doctors are working for our Lady "Yu". One may think that if one year is not enough for them to heal the VIP patient it means that there's money and "Charite" has a special feel for that. While the question remains open and Yulia Vladimirovna again motivates her refusal to be transported under guard to Kyiv based on the test results of the most "honest and incorruptible". It is unknown what more "Charite" quakes will cash in on fields of Ukrainian opposition, however one can feel human sympathy for Yulia, because fabulous earrings only stir up exorbitant appetite of German doctors. It may be the case that neither recent Gazprom kickbacks nor funds that are long been looked for - being the result of joint "work" of Yuila and Lazarenko who is up until now cannot square it up with American Justice - won't be enough.

Rajiv Gandhi Foundation Aims For Achieving Systematic Social Change Through Several Initiatives

The Rajiv Gandhi Foundation will now focus its energies towards achieving systemic and social change through Education. Other programs will continue as Development Support Initiatives. Natural Resource Management is the flagship livelihood promotion programme of the Foundation directly implemented in the remote villages of Rajasthan. The programme is implemented on the principle that because of water scarcity and growing competition large swathes of rural communities are pushed towards impoverishment and could threaten equitable and sustainable development, ecological balance and political stability. The increasing gap between the water availability and demand highlights the need to conserve, utilize and manage this important resource in a sustainable manner.GEOGRAPHICAL COVERAGEFoundation started its NRM interventions in the remote areas of the Rajasthan state covering backward villages of Jaipur, Pali and Karoli district.

The project area was selected on the basis of the poor conditions of the natural resources and willingness of the partner community to participate in the programme.The extreme economic backwardness of the region may be attributed in some measure directly to environmental degradation arising from lack of appropriate planning and poor developmental interventions.The natural resources in the region are in poor conditions because the geographic location does not support the abundant rainfall, poor quality and excessive depth of ground water, absence of Perennial River, open scrub forests and huge withdrawal from limited ground water.AREA OF INTERVENTIONSThe major focus of the programme is on augmenting village water resources, for increased availability of water. The core value of the programme is to incorporate strong participation of the community at every stage of implementation. Most of the interventions and project investments are made for improving the livelihood conditions of the partner community and increasing options for food security. In order to ensure sustainability and prolonged existence of the created structures village institutions are formed and capacitated for taking up desired measures.

Livelihood Promotion through rain water harvesting programmeWater harvesting Programme is RGF's only directly implemented initiative under its livelihood promotion portfolio. Livelihood options are generated through creation of water harvesting structures, initiating watershed activities, adopting and inculcating improved agriculture practices.The most pronounced benefit from the water harvesting structures has been in agriculture productivity. Because of water availability in wells and tube wells farmers have therefore been able to provide more irrigation to their crops which has led to increase in productivity, switch to more remunerative crops and increased net area under cultivation.To ensure that the communities have an ongoing stake in the assets being created, it is ensured that a minimum of 33 percent of the total expenditure would be borne by the community for works carried out on common lands whereas for individual and small user groups the contribution has been fixed at 50 percent or more.Also, Rajiv Gandhi Foundation endeavours to create access for the largest number of children to an education that encourages curiosity, independent thinking and open-mindedness, enables each child to live by the values of integrity, equality and humanity and equips each child to realize his/her full potential.

The First Chinese Sheriff in San Francisco

David Wong immigrated to San Francisco in 1976 with his family from Hong Kong. While David attended grade school, his parents struggled to make ends meet. His father worked as a pastry baker in a Chinese bakery store and his mother worked as a kitchen worker in a Chinese restaurant, laboring 13-16 hours a day, six days a week at below minimum wage.As a young student Wong worked three jobs as a newspaper delivery boy, restaurant bus boy, and theatre attendant so that he could contribute towards the down payment for his family's first home.In 1983, Wong joined the U.S. Army as a telecommunications operator and after two years of active duty, was awarded the Inspirational Soldier Award. Later, he joined the National Guard Army Reserves and became a military police officer. He went to the military police academy in Alameda and he was stationed in Concord, Ca. where he did his reserve duty as military police.After his military service, Wong returned to San Francisco and worked as a warehouse worker and made deliveries for UPS. Wong became a Deputy Sherriff in 1990 and was trained at the San Francisco Police Academy.David Wong began volunteering once a month for Self-Help for Elderly.

Wong delivered food and meals to the elderly for years and continues to do this currently.In 1998, Wong began working with at risk youth in the Sunset. He worked ath Community Youth Center and Sunset Youth Center. Later, Wong was appointed to the California Child Abuse and Neglect Task Force by Attorney General Bill Lockyer in 2002. The Task Force assisted in writing legislation to protect abused children throughout California. Child Abuse Protection Act, where all law enforcement must place the child abusers case in the National Criminal Information Center-NCIC database. He was appointed the California Voters' Rights Task Force by Secretary of State, Kevin Shelley, in November 2002. The Task Force assisted with writing legislation protecting voters' rights. Battered Women Voters Privacy Act, where the law allows Battered women not to include their addresses.Wong was appointed to the California Citizen Compensation Commission by Governor Gray Davis in April 2003. The Commission evaluates the salary for the state constitution officers in the Assembly and Senate.In 2006, David Wong was appointed to the American Legion Cathy Post #384 Board of Directors and was also elected to the Democratic County Central Committee representing District 12 in July 2006.

Wong was appointed to the Community Youth Center Board of Directors in September 2006. . For two years, he assisted CYC in fundraising and youth suicide prevention.Wong lives in Sunset District San Francisco with his wife of since May 1993, approx 18 years, with his wife Elaine; daughter, Leslie 16 and son, Daren 14.David Wong has spent much of his time helping people within the community of San Francisco. Now he is running for San Francisco Sheriff. When elected he will be the first Chinese Sheriff in San Francisco and possibly California.

Four Quick Fixes For a Better Congress – An Excerpt From A Better Congress by Joseph Gibson

"I love these members that get up and say, 'Read the bill!' Well, what good is reading the bill if it's a thousand pages and you don't have two days and two lawyers to find out what it means after you've read the bill?" -- Rep. John Conyers, Jr. On reading the 2010 health care reform bill (1)"I don't think you want me to waste my time to read every page of the health care bill. You know why? It's statutory language. We hire experts." -- Sen. Max Baucus On reading the 2010 health care reform bill (2)Congress has gotten into a lot of trouble with the public because members often do not understand the bills they are considering. As the quotes above make clear, even some of the key players did not read the health care reform bill passed in 2010. In the midst of the debate, Speaker Nancy Pelosi seemed to discourage the public from reading it.

Speaking before a group of local government officials, she said: "But we have to pass the bill so that you can find out what is in it, away from the fog of the controversy." (3) Nor is this issue confined to Democrats. When Republicans controlled Congress, they too passed many complicated bills that few members had the time to read or understand.Basic common sense dictates that members cannot make an informed choice about how to vote on bills if they have not read or understood them. But how can we get them to do that? Under the current way of doing business, they do not seem to have any inclination to do so.Congress could lighten its reading load by restricting the number of bills introduced. In the 110th Congress that met in 2007-08, representatives introduced 7,340 bills or about seventeen per member. Senators introduced 3,741 bills, or about thirty-seven per member. (4) Yet, only 460 of those 11,081 bills (about 4 percent) became law, and over a third of those were purely honorary in nature. Drafting and working on all of those bills consumes staff time and other resources. Given these figures, it sounds like Congress could probably make do with fewer introduced bills.Both chambers could limit each member to introducing ten bills per Congress.

Not all members would use their allocation, and they could be allowed to pass them to other members who may want to introduce more than ten bills. A monetary bonus could also be paid for not using the entire allocation. Having this kind of rule would force members to focus on the legislation that they really want to pass. It would also save the resources expended on all the other bills that are now introduced and quickly forgotten. Members could freely use their government web sites to post drafts on which they may want to seek public comment without using up their allocations.Both chambers could also require that bills be drafted in plain English. As this book was being written, Congress enacted the "Plain Writing Act of 2010." (5) It required all executive branch agencies to use plain English in their documents. Sadly, Congress did not apply the same requirement to its documents. If it did, that would lighten the load for members.As the quotes from Representative Conyers and Senator Baucus illustrate, members find current bill language dense and difficult to understand. If bills were drafted in clearer language, perhaps more members would read and understand them. If the bills then became law, the public might understand them better as well. Of the 460 public laws passed during 2007-08, seventeen were technical corrections bills that fixed drafting mistakes in prior laws -- that Congress needed to pass so many of these bills illustrates the problems that complexity introduces.The comments of Representative Conyers, Senator Baucus, and Speaker Pelosi also show that members do not read and understand bills because they are too long. The final version of the health care reform bill ran to over 2,400 pages in bill form. (6) To even contemplate reading through it numbs the mind. Its sheer length belies the notion that any single member actually read it or understood it. Yet bills of extreme length are increasingly common. The financial services reform bill passed in the summer of 2010 ran to more than 1,600 pages in bill form. (7) Republicans were equally guilty of this kind of excess when they ran Congress.Both chambers could limit bills to a reasonable number of pages. One hundred pages seems like a reasonable number. If there were just a flat prohibition on the number of pages in introduced bills, members could game that requirement by adding amendments.

Leaders could address this in a couple of ways. One would be to announce that they will not bring bills to the floor unless the bill, with its amendments, is less than one hundred pages. Another way would be to require separate votes for each one hundred pages. In either case, the point is to bring the proposal down to a digestible size so that members actually make an informed choice when they vote and can be held accountable for their votes.Those requirements will make little difference unless the rules also require an adequate time to read the bills. House Republican leader John Boehner suggested during the 2010 midterm campaign that no bill be brought up until it had been available to members for seventy-two hours. That seems like a reasonable time. If it were enforced, no member could use lack of time as an excuse for not reading the bills.All of these common sense reforms could easily be embodied in rules of the chamber or leadership policies. Getting members to actually read the bills and understand them is another matter entirely. It is not clear how either chamber could realistically enforce such a rule or policy. However, it could be made into campaign fodder. A party could encourage its members to take a campaign pledge to read and understand every bill they vote on. It would be hard for an opponent not to make the same pledge. We would have to rely on the candidates' honor that they are actually doing so. But if they did not, they would certainly face embarrassing questions from the media when they broke it.The changes suggested in this chapter are relatively easy to enact, but they would make a world of difference in how Congress operates. Had they been in effect, it is likely that we would have had a much simpler and easier to understand health care reform bill and that the public would be much happier with the product.Endnotes1. The video of this quote is available on YouTube, "John Conyers on Reading the Healthcare Bill."2. The quote was reported in "Libby Residents Relate Gains, Drawbacks of Asbestos Aid," by Dan Testa, (Kalispell, MT) Flathead Beacon, August 24, 2010.3. Her prepared remarks are available as "Pelosi Remarks at the 2010 Legislative Conference for National Association of Counties," Press Release from the Office of the Speaker of the House, March 9, 2010.4. These figures do not include joint resolutions, concurrent resolutions, or sim- ple resolutions. For more on these types of legislation, see Congressional Deskbook, ???????? 11.20, 11.30. For an explanation of how these numbers were derived, see Appendix A.5. Pub. L. No. 111-274, 124 Stat. 2861 (2010). Prior to the passage of H.R. 946 (2010), efforts to get members of the executive branch to use plain English had gone on for a number of years, but they had been somewhat sporadic. See "A History of Plain Language in the United States Government (2004)," by Joanne Locke, ; President Clinton signed a memorandum encouraging the use of plain English in the executive branch in 1998, "Executive Memorandum of June 1, 1998 -- Plain Language in Government Writing," Federal Register Volume 63, Number 111, FR Doc No: 98-15700.6. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Pub. L. No. 111-148, 124 Stat. 119 (2010).7. Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, Pub. L. No. 111- 203, 124 Stat. 1376 (2010).

The Central Government Has Done Whatever it Was Able to do For The Development of Uttar Pradesh.

19 April 2007 "The graph of the Congress Party is going up very fast. It is getting stronger by the day. Till recently, no one took Congress seriously, but now it's in the fight on many seats. Rahul Gandhi's entry has changed the scenario," commented Md.Hasim of Nanpara. Iqbal Advocate echoed similar sentiments. Rahul Gandhi's entry has given a reason to the Muslims to get back to the Congress. They have started to have faith in Congress again. In the times to come Congress will do well, he said. Shiv Balak Giri went into the past when he saw Rahul Gandhi. "I don't remember the time exactly, but once Indiraji came in the area to inaugurate a bridge in Jaalim Nagar. Then he is the first one to come. We have seen a Gandhi after a long time", he said. Rahul Gandhi received a rousing welcome at Motipur, Nanpara. The huge crowd went over board to welcome the leader. And they were full of praise for Mr Gandhi too. Mr Gandhi once again took the opportunity to hit it hard on the Mulayam Singh Yadav Government for its non-performance and insensitivity. He also came down from the dais to mingle with the people. "The only thing which has developed in Uttar Pradesh in the last fifteen years is Gundagardi. Nothing else has developed.

The wheels of development in the state has come to a halt, courtesy the state governments for the last fifteen years," he said speaking at a public meeting at Motipur, Nanpara. Earlier, he addressed a public meeting at Bhinga also. "The central government has done whatever it was able to do for the development of Uttar Pradesh. 40 per cent of the money in Uttar Pradesh comes from the centre. Yet development is nowhere to be seen. Both the Prime Minister and the Congress President have worked hard and have sent as much central funds to Uttar Pradesh as was possible. But the state government looted all the money," said Rahul Gandhi taking a dig at the under development of the state at Bhinga. "Where is the development, the roads are the same as it where fifteen years ago, same is the condition of hospitals, employment, basic amenities and whatever counts for development. They have just cheated you, promised you so many things and delivered none," he added. "We have full faith in Rahulji, not only because he speaks good. We know that he has developed his own constituency.

He has done so much there. We expect him to do the same for the whole state, so we are going to support him", said Dhanraj, a resident of Bhinga. Earlier, Congress MP Rahul Gandhi kicked off his fifth leg of campaign for the Uttar Pradesh assembly election on Thursday. His first destination was Tulsipur, Shivpura in Balrampur district. "Wherever I will go I will encourage the youth, I will work for them, I will ask them to come ahead. I am here to ask them to come ahead, cause they are the one who can bring change. I am ready to work with them on all fronts and at all the time, its not only for the elections, I am here for a long time. Elections or no election, I will work with you to transform the state in a model state once again," said Rahul Gandhi addressing a mammoth public meeting at Tulsipur, Shivpura in Balrampur district. "You know the situation in Uttar Pradesh and you also know the kind of governments which are ruling you. They are not working. For the last fifteen years, you are being cheated. They come to you, seek your vote and don't do anything for you. They have divided you in the name of caste and religion," he added. "No one has worked for the Aam Aadmi as much as Indiraji did. She worked for the masses of the country," he said talking about the development during the tenure of former Prime Minister Late Smt.Indira Gandhi. "Wherever I go---Karnataka, Haryana, Punjab people of Uttar Pradesh are marching ahead, they are contributing in the development of the respective states. When they are doing so good there, why isn't it the same for their home state? The reason is very simple, the state government is not letting you work, and they have tied your hands," he said blasting off the state government. "Prime Minister and Congress President both have tried and given funds for your development, but the state government never utilized it. You should ask them, where has all the money gone?" he asked the cheering crowds.

Democracy And Nation Building

Rajiv Gandhi : "We have cherished our democracy. Democracy is our strength. We have no illusions that all problems have been resolved. But the democratic way of nation building requires patience, perseverance and a spirit of conciliation. We proclaim the unity of India. It is a fact of transcending significance. But is it not also a fact that most of us, in our daily lives, do not think of ourselves as Indians? We see ourselves as Hindus, Muslims or Christians, or Malyalees, Maharashtrians, Bengalis. Worse, we think of ourselves as Brahmins, Thakurs, Jats, Yadavas and so on and so forth. And we shed blood to uphold our narrow and selfish denominations. We are imprisoned by the narrow, domestic walls of religion, language, caste, and region, blocking out the clear view of a resurgent nation. Political parties, state governments and social organisations promote policies, programmes and ideologies which divide brother from brother and sister from sister. Bonds of fraternity and solidarity yield to the onslaughts of meanness of mind and spirit. Is this the India for which Mahatma Gandhi and Indira Gandhi sacrificed their lives?We need to change the scenario of rural areas and for that we need to change the lives of farmers, workers. This is the only way out. We need to take the farmers closer to the use of technology, give them advanced equipments, give them newer variety of seeds and teach them new irrigational methods. On the other side we will also make sure that they get the right price of their production. This way we are trying to help out the farmers.Bringing the 73rd Constitutional amendment, he also brought the idea of 'a government of the people, by the people, for the people' into a real shape.(Strongly advocating Panchayati Raj)…After the country got Independent, the constitution promised the resolution of empowering the third strata of society. First and second is functional from Delhi or functional in capital cities which is decently empowered after several elections. These can not be moved now. But because the third strata is still weak, the weakness passes on to the first and second strata too. People at the top strata become paper lions. This way a complete hollow set up is built and that is what we need to rectify. need to ensure that newest of technology is utilized and used at the rural level. We need to befriend science and technology to jump to higher notches. Distance between concept and implementation needs to be bridged."RAHUL GANDHI : "I have been saying for sometime now that this country started of as one country and every body in this country was poor. Sixty years of work and today we have developed two Indias. One India is the India of opportunity and second India is lacking that opportunity. You can say one India is rich, one India is poor. You can say one India has infrastructure, roads, connectivity and other India does not. You can say one India lives in the cities, the other India doesn't. None of these definitions captures precisely the fact that there are two India. But every one among us knows that there are two Indias. Ensure that it is an India of opportunities for all. Our view is that you need both these Indias to eventually create that One India. The idea is that you take the India with opportunities, you grow that India and you take some of the benefits and you put them into the villages and you engage and involve that India into this first one. That is our view. Out view is that both these Indias have to be merged and that is the idea of Aam Admi.".

Responding to State Senator James Sheehan of Rhode Island on The National Popular Vote Plan

State Senator James C. Sheehan (D-RI) wrote an article titled The National Popular Vote compact would sideline our state. This article was published in the Westerly Sun of Westerly, Rhode Island.The National Popular Vote Plan is an interstate compact, whereby participating states would agree to allocate their electoral votes to the winner of the National Popular Vote, as opposed to the candidate who secures the most votes in their state. The compact would take effect when enough states (constituting the requisite 270 electoral votes required to win the Presidential election) agree to participate. Currently 8 states and the District of Columbia, constituting 132 Electoral votes, have ratified the compact.Mr. Sheehan argues that under the Plan "big states and big money would be the likely winners and the Rhode Island's voice would go from small to obscure and insignificant."In actuality however, no candidate could win an election by focusing solely on the largest populated state(s). These states tend to cancel each other out; creating an environment wherein candidates will have to garner votes in small and medium sized states as well. California and Texas are the nation's two largest states. California has voted for the Democratic Presidential nominee in the last five elections. In 2008, Democrat Barack Obama won the state with 61% of the vote. There was no serious effort by the Republicans to even contest the state.

Contrariwise, Texas, the second biggest state, has not voted for a Democratic Presidential candidate since Jimmy Carter won the state in 1976. There has been no serious effort on the part of Democrats to win the state since 1992. In 2008, while Democrat Barack Obama won the Presidency with a comfortable 52.9% of the vote, Republican John McCain won the loan star state with a formidable 55.4% of the vote.Ironically, under the current winner-take-all regime of awarding Presidential electors, which is employed in 48 states, both large and small states are ignored. The three largest states, California, Texas, and New York are used by candidates merely as ATM machines. Presidential candidates raise campaign money from these states' benefactors, but make no effort to cultivate support from these states' voters. Contrariwise, of the 13 smallest states, only New Hampshire is a perennial showdown state. The other 12 states are "safe states" which receive no attention from the Presidential candidates.As for the influence of "big money," the same amount of money would be raised under the National Popular Vote Plan as is raised presently. The only change is that the preponderance of the money collected "would not" be spent in just 15 battleground states.Under the National Popular Vote Plan, the political voice of the Ocean State would actually be amplified. Currently, the state attracts no attention from Presidential candidates because it is pretty much a foregone conclusion that the state will be won by the Democratic nominee by a wide margin. The state last went for a Republican in 1984, as part of Ronald Reagan's 49-state landslide victory. In 2008, Democrat Barack Obama carried 38 of the state's 39 municipalities without even campaigning in the state.Under the National Popular Vote Plan, every vote throughout the nation will be in play. No voter will be ignored because of his or her disadvantageous geopolitical residence. Presidential campaigns will have one goal, to muster as many votes as possible.

Under the current status quo, there is no electoral reason for a candidate to pay any attention to Rhode Island's commercial fishermen, its manufacturing industry, or the state's Agricultural output.Under the National Popular Vote Plan, Presidential candidates will have causes belie to address these issues. They will have an electoral incentive to open campaign offices in Rhode Island, send surrogates to address Rhode Islanders, and to cultivate and galvanize their political bases. Candidates would spend their campaign war chests not just within the 15 or so showdown states, but would likely spend money throughout the nation, including in Rhode Island.Mr. Sheehan warns: "The legislation also proposes to give our state's electoral votes not necessarily to the presidential candidates of our residents' choice but to the candidate who wins a majority of votes across the nation."This statement flies in the face of the fact that more than 70% of Rhode Island voters support a National Popular Vote. When an national election is decided against a voter's chosen candidate, the voter is not likely to take solace in the fact that the candidate captured their state. A supporter of John Kerry from Rhode Island in 2004 was probably not reveling in the fact that the Democratic nominee won the Ocean State. The national election is what counts for the voter, and Kerry lost.At the state level where a National Popular Vote is employed, there is no focus on how a candidate fared in a certain municipality. For example, a voter in Smithfield, Rhode Island was probably not focusing on the fact that Republican Gubernatorial nominee John F. Robitaille handily won the municipality. Instead, the voter was more likely to be focusing on the fact that Independent Candidate Lincoln Chafee won the state.Mr. Sheehan admonishes that under the National Popular Vote Plan: "Major population centers would become even more important in the race for president, while towns and rural areas could be largely ignored." Despite Mr. Sheehan's conclusions, the nation's large urban areas comprise only a smidgen of the total electorate. In fact, the nation's top 25 cities comprise only 12% of the electorate, and the nation's five largest populated cities constitute just 6% of the electorate. Accordingly, to win the national popular vote, a candidate must appeal to the large majority of Americans who do not live in these urban centers of which Mr. Sheehan speaks. It would be politically foolhardy for a Presidential candidate to focus exclusively or even largely on urban centers.We see the ineffectiveness of this argument at the state level. In 2010, Texas Governor Rick Perry was re-elected by 13 percentage points, despite being overwhelmingly defeated in the state's two largest cities, Houston and Dallas. In fact, these two cities are two of the highest populated U.S. cities. Furthermore, George Pataki served three terms as Governor of New York, despite being wiped out in the nation's largest city, New York. Finally, California has elected four Governors in the last 46 years who did not come close to carrying the state's largest city, Los Angeles.Lastly, Mr. Sheehan advises that supporters of the National Popular Vote Plan "should submit this idea as a constitutional amendment, instead of exploiting a loophole in constitutional law and trying to affect voting change through state legislatures." Perhaps Mr. Sheehan does not realize that the National Popular Vote Plan in no way circumvents the U.S. Constitution. In fact, there is no provision in the U.S. Constitution mandating that the President must be selected by a particular electoral method. Accordingly, there is absolutely no need for a Constitutional Amendment to change the method that states use for the awarding of electors. The Founding Fathers could not arrive at a resolution as to how to award electoral votes at the Constitutional Convention. Given this impasse, they decided to delegated "plenary authority" to the states to award their electors, as reflected in Article ll, Section 1, Clause 11 of the U.S. Constitution, which states: "Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors." Accordingly, each state has autonomy to select electors in any way that it deems fit.In conclusion, the National Popular Vote Plan would give Rhode Island voters the seat at the electoral table that they are currently lacking. Rhode Island was the first state to declare independence from Britain. Under the National Popular Vote Plan, Presidential candidates will treat the Ocean State with the respect that it deserves.